May Anti-Slavery Collection Help
GeneralGetting Started | Tips for beginners | Choosing a Search Type | Searching vs. Browsing
SearchingBasic | Advanced (Boolean, Proximity, Bibliographic) | Understanding Results | Using the Bookbag | Search within this Book
Other topicsOCR text vs. page images | Viewing and navigating texts | Printing
May Anti-Slavery Collection allows you to submit simple and advanced queries. To conduct a search, follow these steps:
- Select a search type. (The default search type is Basic. This is the simplest search form, but more advanced searches are available.)
- Enter your search terms (Depending on your search type, you can combine up to three words or phrases to match in a specified area of the text.)
Tips for Beginners
- In a search form with more than one box you have to fill out the first box. Otherwise your search will not return any results.
- Many of the search forms have an option that are available on pull-down menus. Put your mouse on the box and hold down the mouse button to see and make your choices.
- Truncation is not automatic. To search variations and the plural of a word, include an asterisk * at the end of the word. For example, work*, will look for works, worker, working, and so forth. The simple term work will look only for the word work.
Choosing a Search Type
One way to control your search is to select from among a number of search types.
Basic search is the simplest search; it allows you to look for a single word or phrase in a designated area of the text (full text, author, title, or date).
Boolean search lets your look for combinations of up to three terms or phrases using Boolean connector terms (i.e. AND, OR, NOT). It also allows you to look for them in the same page or work.
Proximity search lets you look for terms based on whether they occur (or do not occur) within a specified distance of each other.
Bibliographic search lets you look for words that occur in author or title fields, and not the full text of the book.
Searching vs. Browsing
- locates works that contain information specified in the search, such as certain words in the title or text or an author's name
- returns a list of the titles that contain that information
- presents a hyper-linked bibliography of all works in the May Anti-Slavery Collection organized by Author, Title, Date, or Image.
See below for more information on Searching and Browsing.
Basic searches are best used when searching with a single word or phrase. Enter a word or phrase, including an author's name. Use the pull-down "Search in" menu to select an area of the text to search (full text, title, author, or date). Click the Search button to submit the query. The search looks for the terms anywhere in any of the texts. Beware that multiple words will be treated as a literal string, so a search for culture East Indies will assume those words are the phrase "culture East Indies." To search for culture AND East Indies, use Boolean search. If using common words, this search may produce a very large number of results. For more complex searches, with search limit options, try an Advanced Search (Boolean, Proximity, Bibliographic).
Advanced searching: Boolean | Proximity | Bibliographic
Boolean searches allow you to combine up to three search terms or phrases using Boolean connector terms (AND, OR, NOT) and look for them in the same page or work. Use the pull-down "Search in" menu to select an area of the text to search in (pages or works). The default is pages.
Enter a term or phrase in the first text box. Multiple words will be treated as a literal string.
If you enter a term in the second text box, select a Boolean operator after the first text box to determine the relationship. To further limit the scope of the search, add words or word phrases in the "Limit to" boxes and select a bibliographic field (title, author, date) from the appropriate field menu.
- East Indies AND Haiti finds works in which both East Indies and Haiti appear in the text.
- East Indies OR Haiti finds works in which either East Indies or Haiti appear somewhere in the text.
- East Indies OR Haiti AND slavery finds works in which either East Indies and slavery OR Haiti and slavery appear somewhere in the text.
- Submitting a query for slavery will result in a full-text search for all works in which that term occurs.
Pages or Works option:
- allows you to broaden or narrow your Boolean search
- "Pages" looks for your terms where they all appear on the same page
- "Works" looks for the terms anywhere in the work
How Boolean searches are executed:
- Boolean expressions are operated on from left to right, just like mathematical equations. This means that you will need to take some care in formulating your search. For example: You wish to find any texts that mention the word mangoes AND either the words fruits OR papaya. Your search should be formulated as: fruits OR papaya AND mangoes.
- Since the search works from left to right, the search will first look for the set of texts that contains EITHER fruits or papaya.
- Then the search will look within that set of texts for the ones that also mention mangoes.
- Those texts will be your results set.
If you had formulated your search as mangoes AND fruits OR papaya you would have gotten a very different set of results. Why?
- Since the search works from left to right, the search would have first looked for the set of texts that contains BOTH the words mangoes and fruits.
- Next it would have looked for the texts that contain the word papaya.
- Then it would combine those two sets of results and eliminated the duplicates to give you your results.
- This means you would have a whole set of texts that contained papaya but make no mention of mangoes.
Proximity searches look for the co-occurrence of search terms. This allows you to specify the physical relationship between the words you are looking for -- so you can look for words following each other or near each other.
- You can look for words or phrases within 40, 80 or 120 characters of each other.
- You can find places where one term is followed by another.
- You can look for places where words are Not Near and Not Followed By other words.
- If you want only those texts in May Anti-Slavery Collection in which the terms ethnic and minorities appeared relatively near each other, search those terms within 40-80 characters.
- To find those terms only when one follows another select the proximity operator Followed By. Ethnic followed by minorities would help you locate only those works that are perhaps more directly concerned with "ethnic minorities".
- To find all occurrences of a term when it is not followed by another closely associated term, you may use the proximity operators Not Near or Not Followed By. For instance, if you were only interested in ethnic, a search for the term ethnic Not Near minorities would yield all occurrences of ethnic when not directly referring to minorities.
Bibliographic searches are useful for quickly locating items with a known title, author, or date by searching the bibliographic records and not the full text of the books. You may also search using a known subject heading or for a keyword anywhere in the bibliographic citation (so you could also search for items from a particular publisher or all the works published in New York in 1830).
You want to find all the works by members of the Washington family.
- Enter Washington in the text box.
- Select Author from the pull-down menu.
- Press the Search button.
Your results will list all works written by authors who have Washington somewhere in their names.
You are interested in all the works by xxx in 1870.
Note: If you had done this search as a Basic Search and selected "Search in: Author" and then put "Find: Washington", you would get the same search results.
You are interested in all the works by xxx in 1830:
- Enter xxx in the text box.
- Select author from the pull-down menu.
- Choose the Boolean operator And from the pull-down menu of operators.
- Enter 1830 in the next text box.
- Select year from the pull-down menu.
- Press the Search button
Your results may contain some false matches if the words xxx and 1830 appear in other parts of the citation (such as the title), but most will match your desired criteria.
Understanding search results
- Your search results are returned in an alphabetized list, according to the author.
- There are hyperlinks to the table of contents and an option to add the book to the bookbag. The contents of the bookbag can either be emailed to an address or directly downloaded onto your computer.
- Each result indicates density by telling you how many matches are found in the collection. Clicking on the Results Details hyperlink will show you the page numbers on which the term occurs
Using the Bookbag
The bookbag lets you select items as you search or browse collections and hold them for the duration of your search session. Item records in your bookbag can be saved to your desktop as a text file, or emailed to any email address. You can also search items in your bookbag collectively, as well as link to any item directly.
Adding an item to your bookbag
You can add items to your bookbag from the results list, from the item table of contents, or while viewing an individual text. In the results list, under each work title, is an add to bookbag link.
To add an item to the bookbag, simply click the corresponding link. The number of items in the bookbag will be updated in the right side portion of the page header.
A corresponding add to bookbag link appears next to the work title when you are viewing the full contents of the text. Clicking the link there will add that item to the bookbag in the same fashion.
Opening the bookbag
You can view your bookbag contents from any page by clicking the view bookbag tab at the top right on the main navigation bar.
The bookbag holdings display
The main bookbag page is the holdings display. All the features in the bookbag are available from this page (see fig. 1 - TO COME).'
At the top right corner is a count of items in the bookbag. You can make searches restricted to your bookbag by clicking on search in bookbag. With this you can collect works into a bookbag from searches on a certain broad topic or author, and then do more in-depth analysis of the works as a group.
- Click the email contents button to send the item records to any email address.
- Click the download contents button to save the contents to any place on your PC, or display them in another application.
- Click empty contents to remove all the item records at once.
- Clicking the link to this item link will display the entire text of the item in the main window.
- Click remove from bookbag to remove this item record only.
Search within this book
Once you have found a book you would like to see, use this function to search for additional search terms within that particular book.
You would like to search for the keyword "ladies" in the book with the title, Discussion on American slavery.
- From the Basic record of the book, click on Table of Contents.
- Click on "Search within this text" (in the yellow box).
- This opens up a Basic Search Screen (you cannot search within the text using Advanced searches) where you can search your keyword (in this case "ladies") in the full text, title, author, or date.
- If you searched full text, you will then click on "results details" to see all the places "ladies" appears within the full text of this book.
To browse the hyperlinked bibliography of all works in the collection, click on Browse and then choose Author, Title, Date. Once you find the title or author you want, click on it to go directly to the book's record.
- Use the alphabet links to jump to a desired section of the alphabet.
- To then locate a particular name or title word, use your browser's find command to search that section of the bibliography. In Windows computers this is typically "Control+F"; in Macintosh, hold down the Apple+F keys.
- All titles are hyperlinked to the book.
OCR text vs page images
May Anti-Slavery Collection materials have been encoded in a simple SGML form (a 40 element DTD conforming to the TEI Guidelines). This data includes the document text from the OCR (Optical Character Recognition) process. Many users have asked if they can have access to the plain, uncorrected OCR text. We believe that in most cases people will still want to look at the page images of the books, but have decided to make the text available to users so they can save it, cut and paste, and to use the "find" feature on their Web browsers to locate a word on a page. We think that this will be of benefit to our users. If you want to view the plain text, there are a couple of ways to accomplish this:
Page by page viewing:
Go to the desired page and choose "view as text" from the view as menu in the toolbar at the top. As you move forward or back in the work, you will continue paging through plain text until you choose another "view as" option.
You may choose to view an entire book in plain text by selecting the "view as text" option. The file can be saved by selecting the "save" option in the browser"s File menu. By default, the file will be saved as HTML, which can be viewed with a web browser (text will not be broken up by line or page -- it is one large block of text). You can also change the file extension to .txt to save as text for viewing with a text editor or word processor (this preserves line and page breaks).
Please be aware that some of these texts are as long as 1,000 pages and will take a long time to download, particularly over a modem. Such a large download may also crash your Web browser.
Viewing and Navigating a text
When you begin to view a book, you will also see a separate navigation frame at the top of your browser that looks like this (without the number labels). This is what the various parts mean:
Click on this icon. It goes to the previous page of the text.
Indicates the number of the page you are viewing and the total number of pages in the text.
Click on this icon. It goes to the next page of the text.
sets the size of the image you are viewing. If you have a smaller monitor you might want to choose a low percentage. The percentages are in a pull down menu. The size you choose will stay in effect until you change it or end your session. Other options on this menu include:
- Text allows you to view the raw OCR text or (if available) the proofed and encoded text.
Go to page #:
Jumps to a desired page that you enter in the box. Especially handy for moving from a table of contents to a section of a book. "Go to page #" is a button and must be clicked on to jump to the desired page.
jumps to special purpose pages such as title pages, tables of contents, and lists of illustrations. The special pages are listed in a pull down menu. Not all texts will contain the same choices.
Printing a text
Go to File > Print in your browser's menu.
- Texts in May Anti-Slavery Collection can only be printed page by page
- If you print directly from your browser, texts will print at the size of the image you are viewing (100%. 75%, etc)
- You will need to calculate maximum clarity against fitting a page on a standard piece of paper when you decide what size image to print. 25% may be unreadable. 100% may not fit on a standard printer's paper.
Note on diacritics: A Unicode version is planned for summer 2006. Until then, some entries may not indicate proper diacritics. For example, arrivée will appear as arrivee. We are aware that this seems like a misspelling and hope to fix this with the Unicode version.